Dengue fever

General Information

Dengue is endemic in more than 100 countries in Africa, the Americas, South and South-east Asia, and the Western Pacific region.

There are four Dengue virus serotypes, and it is possible to be infected four times, since protection against one serotype does not provide complete protection against other serotype.

It is by far the most important mosquito-borne viral disease affecting humans worldwide.


Dengue is transmitted through bites of infected mosquitoes.

As a bloodborne virus, it is also possible (albeit rare) to have bloodborne and mother to child (vertical) transmission.


Up to 80% of all dengue infections are asymptomatic.

Commonly reported clinical symptoms include sudden onset of high fever, severe headache and retro-orbital pain, muscle and joint pain and minor haemorrhage.

The illness rarely lasts for more than 10 days, but convalescence can be prolonged and debilitating. A portion of cases, usually < 5%, can be severe and a fraction of these may be fatal.

In some cases, secondary infections of dengue virus can be extremely serious and result in plasma leakage, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhagic disease.

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Half of the world’s population is now at risk of dengue with an estimated 100–400 million infections occurring each year, resulting in approximately 20,000-25,000 deaths mainly in children. 


In 2023 and until the beginning of December, over 5 million cases and over 5 000 dengue-related deaths have been reported from 86 countries/territories globally.


Vaccines in
the pipeline

Technology Platforms

  • Live-attenuated virus​ (1)


  • Phase II (1)


    Paediatric + Adults + Older Adults (1)

Source: WHO. Dengue and sever dengue. 2023 [cited 2023 August]. Available from: ECDC. Factsheet about dengue. 2023 [cited 2023 August]. Available from: ECDC. COMMUNICABLE DISEASE THREATS REPORT. 2022 [cited 2023 August]. Available from: files/documents/Communicable-disease-threats-report-30-jul-2022-public.pdf. ECDC. 12-month dengue virus disease case notification rate per 100 000 population, December 2022-November 2023. [cited 2024 January]. Available from: CDC. Dengue. 2023 [cited 2024 February]. Available from:

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