How long does it take to develop a vaccine?

This depends on the complexity of the pathogen and how it interacts with the body to cause disease, and subsequently how a vaccine may need to be designed to help prevent the infection. Vaccine development has historically required 10 to 15 years from the first research and development steps to making a vaccine available to populations. Timelines have been drastically reduced in the initial development processes for COVID-19 vaccine projects, but companies working on these vaccines are of course still required to follow international and individual national public health guidelines and regulations to ensure safety and efficacy of the vaccine candidates.

You can find more information on how vaccines are developed and produced here.